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Cooling methods commonly used in the laboratory
1, running water cooling. This method can be used for liquids that need to be cooled to room temperature. The object to be cooled is directly cooled with running tap water.
2. Cool with ice or ice water. The required cooling material is placed directly in ice water to give a temperature of 0 degrees.
3. Ice-inorganic salt cooling. The cooling temperature is around 0-40 degrees. When making the ice salt coolant, the salt should be finely ground and mixed with the pulverized ice, so that the effect of cooling is good. Ice and salt are mixed in different ratios to obtain different cooling temperatures.
4. Dry ice - organic solvent cooling. A low temperature of -70 degrees or less can be obtained. Dry ice is not the same as ice and cannot be in effective contact with the wall of the container being cooled. Therefore, it is often used together with an organic solvent having a low freezing point, such as acetone, ethanol, n-butane, isopentane, and the like.
5, the use of low boiling liquid gas, can obtain lower temperatures, such as liquid nitrogen can reach -195.8 degrees, while liquid nitrogen can reach -268.9 degrees of low temperature. Special care should be taken when using liquid oxygen and hydrogen. Liquid oxygen should not be in contact with organic matter to prevent the occurrence of combustion accidents; the hydrogen released by liquid hydrogenation must be carefully burned or discharged to high altitude to avoid explosion accidents; liquid ammonia has a strong stimulating effect and should be used in fume hoods.
Precautions for using a ground glass instrument in the laboratory
Burning of laboratory solid matter